The Power of Nonviolence Martin Luther King Jr.
From the very beginning, there was a philosophy undergirding the Montgomery boycott, the philosophy of nonviolent resistance. There was always the problem of getting this method over because it didn’t make sense to most of the people in the beginning. We had to use our mass meetings to explain nonviolence to a community of people who had never heard of the philosophy and, in many instances, were not sympathetic to it. We had meetings twice a week on Mondays and on Thursdays, and we had an institute on nonviolence and social change. We had to make it clear that nonviolent resistance is not a method of cowardice. It does resist. It is not a method of stagnant passivity and deadening complacency. The nonviolent resister is just as opposed to the evil that he is standing against as the violent resister, but he resists without violence. This method is nonaggressive physically but powerfully aggressive spiritually.
NOT TO HUMILIATE BUT TO WIN OVER
Another thing that we had to get over was the fact that the nonviolent resister does not seek to humiliate or defeat the opponent but to win his friendship and understanding. This was always a cry that we had to set before people that our aim is not to defeat the white community, not to humiliate the white community, but to win the friendship of all of the persons who had perpetrated this system in the past. The end of violence or the aftermath of violence is bitterness. The aftermath of nonviolence is reconciliation and the creation of a beloved community. A boycott is never an end within itself. It is merely a means to awaken a sense of shame within the oppressor, but the end is reconciliation; the end is redemption.
Then we had to make it clear also that the nonviolent resister seeks to attack the evil system rather than individuals who happen to be caught up in the system. And this is why I say from time to time that the struggle in the South is not so much the tension between white people and Negro people. The fight is preferably between justice and injustice, between the forces of light and the forces of darkness. And if there is a victory, it will not be a victory merely for fifty thousand Negroes. But it will be a victory for justice, a victory for goodwill, a victory for democracy.
Another essential thing we had to get over is that nonviolent resistance is also an internal matter. It avoids not only external violence or external physical violence but also domestic violence of spirit. And so at the center of our movement stood the philosophy of love. The attitude that the only way to ultimately change humanity and make for the society that we all long for is to keep love at the center of our lives. Now people used to ask me from the beginning what do you mean by love and how is it that you can tell us to love those persons who seek to defeat those persons who stand against us and us; how can you like such persons? And I had to make it clear all along that love in its highest sense is not a sentimental sort of thing, not even an affectionate
sort of thing.
The Greek language uses three words for love. It talks about eros. Eros is a sort of aesthetic appreciation. It has come to us to be a sort of romantic love, and it stands with all of its beauty. But when we speak of loving those who oppose us, we’re not talking about eros. The Greek language talks about philia, and this is a sort of reciprocal love between personal friends. This is a vital, valuable love. But when we speak of loving those who oppose you and those who seek to defeat you, we are not talking about eros or philia. The Greek language comes out with another word, and it is agape. Agape is understanding, creative, redemptive goodwill for all men. Biblical theologians would say it is the love of God working in the minds of men. It is an overflowing love, which seeks nothing in return. And when you come to love on this level, you begin to love men not because they are likable, not because they do things that attract us, but because God loves them, and here we love the person who does the evil deed while hating the deed that the person does. It is the type of love that stands at the center of the movement that we are trying to carry on in the Southland-agape.
SOME POWER IN THE UNIVERSE THAT WORKS FOR JUSTICE
I am quite aware of the fact that there are persons who believe firmly in nonviolence who do not believe in a personal God, but I think every person who believes in nonviolent resistance believes somehow that the universe in some form is on the side of justice. That there is something unfolding in the world whether one speaks of it as an unconscious process, or whether one speaks of it as some unmoved mover, or whether someone speaks of it as a persol1al God. There is something in the universe that unfolds for justice, and so in Montgomery, we felt somehow that as we struggled, we had cosmic companionship. And this was one of the things that kept the people together, the belief that the universe is on the side of justice.
God grant that as men and women all over the world struggle against evil systems, they will struggle with love in their hearts, with understanding goodwill. Agape says you must go on with wise restraint and calm reasonableness, but you must keep moving. We have a great opportunity in America to build here a great nation, a nation where all men live together as brothers and respect the dignity and worth of all human personality. We must keep moving toward that goal. I know that some people are saying we must slow up. They are writing letters to the North, and they are appealing to white people of goodwill, and to the Negroes saying slow up, you’re pushing too fast. They are saying we must adopt a policy of moderation. Now, if reduction means moving on with wise restraint and calm reasonableness, then moderation is a great virtue that all men of goodwill must seek to achieve in this tense period of transition. But if fairness means slowing up in the movement for justice and capitulating to the whims and caprices of the guardians of the deadening status quo, then moderation is a tragic vice, which all men of goodwill must condemn. We must continue to move on. Our self-respect is at stake; the prestige of our nation is at
stake. Civil rights is an eternal moral issue which may well determine the destiny of our civilization in the ideological struggle with communism. We must keep moving with wise restraint and love and with proper discipline and dignity.
THE NEED TO BE “MALADJUSTED”
Modern psychology has a word that is probably used more than any other name. It is the word “maladjusted.” Now we all should seek to live a well-adjusted life in order to avoid neurotic and schizophrenic personalities. But there are some things within our social order to which I am proud to be maladjusted and to which I call upon you to be maladjusted. I never intend to adjust myself’ to segregation and discrimination. I never mean to improve myself to mob rule. I never intend to change myself to the tragic effects of the methods of physical violence and to disastrous militarism. I call upon you to be maladjusted to such things. I call upon you to be as maladjusted as Amos, who, in the midst of the injustices of his day, cried out in words that echo across the generation, “Let judgment run down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.” As maladjusted as Abraham Lincoln, who had the vision to see that this nation could not exist half slave and half free. As maladjusted as Jefferson, who in the midst of an age amazingly adjusted to slavery could cry out, “All men are created equal and are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights and that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” As maladjusted as Jesus of Nazareth, who dreamed a dream of the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, God grant that we will be so maladjusted that we will be able to go out and change our world and our civilization. And then we will be able to move from the bleak and desolate midnight of man’s inhumanity to man to the bright and glittering daybreak of freedom and justice.